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國際貨幣基金組織總裁在韓國金融界女性網的主旨演講


 Together, Korea’s Women and Economy Can Soar

齊心協力,韓國女性和經濟可以比翼齊飛

 

– Keynote Speech to Korean Network of Women in Finance

——在韓國金融界女性網的主旨演講

 

Christine Lagarde, Managing Director, International Monetary Fund

國際貨幣基金組織總裁  克里斯蒂娜·拉加德

 

September 5, 2017

2017年9月6日

 

Prime Minister, Ministers, distinguished guests – Anyoung haseyo. It is my honor to address the International Conference on Women’s Empowerment in Financial Services. 

 

總理先生,部長們,各位嘉賓,Anyoung haseyo。能夠在金融服務的女性賦權國際大會上講話,我深感榮幸。

 

Thank you – Sang-Kyung Kim and the Korean Network of Women in Finance – for your warm welcome. Your goal to promote gender diversity in the financial sector is critical. 

 

我感謝Sang-Kyung Kim 和韓國金融界女性網的熱烈歡迎。你們在金融業促進性別多樣化的目標至關重要。 

 

Indeed, empowering women is not just the right moral choice; it is also the right macroeconomic choice. That is why many of us care – including the IMF. Helping women participate in the economy boosts growth, diversifies economies, reduces income inequality, and mitigates demographic change. 

 

實際上,賦予女性權能不僅是道義上的正確選擇,也是宏觀經濟上的正確選擇。正因如此,才有包括基金組織在內的許多人關心這項工作。通過幫助女性參與經濟,將促進經濟增長,提高經濟多樣性,減少收入不平等和減緩人口變化。 

 

These factors are relevant across the globe – but especially here in Korea. 

 

這些問題在全球范圍內都很重要,但在韓國尤其如此。

 

Think, in particular, about growth. For the last five years, the working-age population increased by 200,000 every year, boosting growth by 0.7 percentage points. Over the next five years, the workforce will shrink by 100,000 a year, subtracting 0.2 percentage points from growth. Enabling more women to work can dramatically alleviate the adverse effects of demographic change. 

 

特別是,讓我們想一想增長的問題。過去五年,工作年齡人口每年增加20萬,使增長率提高0.7個百分點。今后五年,工作人口將每年減少10萬,使增長率降低0.2個百分點。如果讓更多女性參加工作,就可以大大緩解人口變化的不利影響。 

 

There has never been a more critical time for Korea to invest in women. This challenge is the focus of my remarks. 

 

對于韓國而言,現在對女性進行投資,比以往任何時候都更為關鍵。我的講話將重點關注這項挑戰: 

 

First, despite progress, further actions are needed – by government and society – to help women participate in the economy; 

 

•首先,盡管已經取得了進展,但政府和社會都仍需采取更多行動,幫助女性參與經濟; 

 

Second, from the corporate perspective, more ambitious steps are required to harness the substantial dividends from having more women in senior positions. 

 

•第二,從企業角度來看,需要采取更加大膽的措施,讓更多女性升任高級職位,以從中獲取重大好處; 

 

1. Empowering Women in Korea’s Economy 

1、韓國經濟中的女性賦權 

 

Let me start with Korea’s progress. The proportion of women in the workforce – the female labor force participation rate – has increased from 46 percent in 1980 to 58 percent in 2016. Between 1990 and 2010, the share of women in regular jobs rose from 20 to 40 percent.  

 

我首先談一下韓國取得的進展。女性在工作人口中的比重,即女性的勞動力參與率,已從1980年的46%上升到了2016年的58%。1990年至2010年期間,女性在正規就業人數中的比重從20%增加到40%。 

 

On the global stage, many Korean women are shining – figure-skaters; musicians; golfers like Park Sung-hyun, recent champion of the U.S. Women’s Open. 

 

全球舞臺上有著很多光彩耀人的韓國女性,包括花樣滑冰選手、音樂家和最近贏得美國女子公開賽冠軍的樸成炫這樣的高爾夫球員。 

 

Yet, Korea still has one of the lowest rates of female labor force participation in the OECD – 20 percentage points below the best performers. Women are paid about 37 percent less than men. Females take up just 2 percent of senior management positions – compared to the OECD average of 20 percent. 

 

然而,韓國女性的勞動力參與率仍然屬于經合組織國家中最低之列,比表現最好的國家低20個百分點。女性的薪酬比男性低大約37%。女性在高管職位中的比率僅為2%,相比之下,經合組織的平均水平是20%。 

 

With many women leaving the workforce in their 30s to have families, they typically miss a decade or more of prime working life. Re-entering the workforce is a challenge. For those who do, opportunities can be limited. Many take non-regular jobs, or never reach the next rung on the career ladder. 

 

很多女性在三十幾歲時便不再工作,她們成立家庭,因此錯過了10年甚至更長的最好的工作時間。重新參與工作并不容易。而對那些再次尋求工作的女性來說,機會可能有限。很多人是非正規就業,或職位永遠升不上去。 

 

I. Policies 

一、政策 

 

The good news is that steps are being taken to remove these barriers. As the Korean proverb goes: “Beginning is half the task.” 

 

好消息是,當局正在采取措施消除這些障礙。正如韓國諺語說的那樣,“好的開頭是成功的一半”。 

 

Korea has had legally-compulsory gender budgeting for over a decade. It is one of only a few countries that collect and analyze gender-disaggregated data to assess the effectiveness of its approach.  

 

十幾年來,韓國一直在法律上強制實施性別預算。韓國是少數幾個收集和分析按性別分列的數據、以評估性別預算效果的國家之一。 

 

Building on this, parental leave provisions have been expanded, and investments made in childcare. Steps have been taken to help mothers return to work after an absence, alongside efforts to make workplaces more family-friendly. These priorities have been part of the IMF’s discussions with the government for several years. 

 

韓國在此基礎上擴大了育嬰假的范圍,增加了兒童保育方面的投資。韓國也采取了措施,幫助母親們在離職一段時間后重返工作,同時還努力使工作場所對家庭更加友好。過去幾年,基金組織已與韓國政府就上述優先事項等問題開展了討論。 

 

Most recently, President Moon has honored his pledge for women to take up 30 percent of his Cabinet. The government is planning other crucial steps. These include making 175 employment centers available to women seeking work, and letting mothers work reduced hours for an extended period. 

 

最近,文在寅總統履行了承諾,使女性在他內閣中占到了30%的席位。政府正在規劃其他重要措施,包括為求職女性提供175個就業中心,以及讓母親能夠在更長時間縮短工時。 

 

Further efforts are needed, including to strengthen childcare, flexible working, and job search and training support. These can pay big dividends. 

 

還需要開展更多工作,這包括完善兒童保育、靈活工作時間以及求職培訓援助。這些努力都將帶來顯著成效。 

 

An IMF study looked at the potential impact of reforming secondary earner taxation, increasing childcare benefits, and boosting tax incentives for part-time work. It estimated that these reforms could help increase female labor force participation by 8 percentage points over the medium term – reducing the gap between male and female participation by one-third. 

 

基金組織的一項研究分析了第二收入者征稅改革、增加育兒福利和加強非全時工作稅收激勵措施的潛在影響。這項研究估計,這些改革可幫助在中期內使女性勞動力參與率提高 8個百分點,從而把男女參與率之間的差距縮小三分之一。 

 

I also know the importance of family-friendly working practices from my own personal experience. 

 

另外,我也有親身經歷,知道支持家庭的工作做法的重要性。 

 

I was about to be made partner international law firm Baker McKenzie when I became a new mother. To care for my son, I changed my working hours, and took Wednesday afternoons off. This did not resonate well with some male partners – but I was determined to do it. Still, it delayed my conversion to partner by a year. 

 

在即將成為國際律師事務所Baker McKenzie的合伙人時,我初為人母。為了照顧兒子,我改變了工作時間,每個星期三下午都不工作。我的男同事們對此并不歡迎,但我仍決心這樣做。然而,我因此多等了一年才成為合伙人。 

 

II. Culture 

二、文化 

 

Indeed, as much as can be achieved through policies, it is critical to address social norms that inhibit women. 

 

此外,我們還必須著手改變約束女性的社會規范,其作用可能不亞于政策的作用。 

 

There are even areas where progress can be made not only without undermining cultural identities – but by affirming them. Consider your national flag. The Yin-Yang circle in the middle of Taegukgi symbolizes that achieving harmony requires both women and men to play their part. 

 

在一些領域,要取得進展不僅不能削弱文化認同,反而應該是肯定文化認同。貴國的國旗就是一個例子。太極旗的中央是陰陽合一,象征為了實現和諧,女性和男性需要同時發揮作用。 

 

Think, first, of the mothers. Amy Chua’s book, Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother, prompted some heated debate, but an underlying observation resonates. That is the amount of time spent by mothers to educate their children at home, often at the expense of paid employment. Improving public education can support changing social attitudes to help more women combine family and work. 

 

首先讓我們想想母親們。蔡美兒所著的《虎媽戰歌》一書引發了一些激烈討論,但其中一個基本的觀察引起了人們的共鳴,這就是母親們放棄了有償勞動,把大量時間用于在家中教育子女。通過改善公共教育,可有助于改變社會態度,幫助更多女性把家庭和事業結合起來。 

 

Women’s attitudes themselves are shifting. The percentage of Korean women wanting to keep their jobs regardless of marriage and childbirth increased from 17 percent in 1988 to 56 percent by 2009. 

 

女性自身的態度正在變化。結婚生育后仍希望繼續工作的韓國女性,其比重從1988年的17%增加到了2009年的56%。 

 

Moreover, one concern that has been raised about having more women in the workforce is that it could reduce fertility – which would hinder efforts to address demographic change. 

 

此外,更多女性參與工作所引起的一個擔心是,這會降低生育率,從而妨礙應對人口變化的努力。 

 

Such concerns are misplaced. Nordic countries have shown that high female labor force participation and fertility can go hand-in-hand if aided by supportive policies.  

 

這樣的擔心是多余的。北歐國家顯示,如果輔以支持性政策,女性的高勞動力參與率和高生育率可以并存。 

 

Another country facing demographic change – Japan – has shown that the likelihood of having a second child increases if men are more active in the household.  

 

日本也是一個面臨人口變化的國家,該國顯示,如果男子在家務中發揮更積極的作用,生第二胎的可能性將增加。 

 

This brings me to the role of fathers. Despite progress, take-up of paternity leave only recently exceeded 5 percent. Many fathers do not take it because they fear ramifications at work. 

 

在這里,我要談談父親們的作用。盡管有所進展,但休陪產假的父親人數只是在最近才超過5%。很多父親之所以不休陪產假,是因為擔心對工作產生不良影響。 

 

Consider the experience of this 34-year old father: 

 

以下這個34歲的父親的經歷是一個例子:

 

“If I hadn’t taken leave”, he said, “I would have been up for promotion. But I was bypassed. I expect to be at a disadvantage in pay and promotion.”  

 

他說:“如果我沒有休陪產假,本來能夠獲得晉升。但別人得到了這個機會。我想自己在加薪升職中會處于較為不利的地位。” 

 

If men are to play a more active role in family life, corporate culture needs to change. It also needs to change for the sake of women, which brings me to my second point – how to empower women to lead in the corporate sector. 

 

要使男子在家庭生活中發揮更為積極的作用,就需要改變企業文化。而為了女性,也需要這么做。這是我接下來談的第二點,如何通過賦予女性權能,讓她們成為商界領袖。 

 

2. Empowering Women in Korea’s Corporations and Financial Sector 

2、韓國的企業和金融業中的女性賦權 

 

Let me begin with an IMF study of 2 million firms in 34 European countries. It found that adding one more woman onto the corporate board can help increase the return on assets by between 8 and 13 basis points. 

 

首先我要提到基金組織對34個歐洲國家的200萬家企業開展的一項研究。這項研究發現,在公司董事會中每增加一名女性,可提高企業資產收益率8至13個基點。 

 

In creative and hi-tech sectors, the return on assets can be as much as 30 basis points. With the Pangyo Creative Economy Valley under development, this finding should resonate. 

 

在創意和高科技部門,資產收益率可以提高多達30個基點。隨著板橋技術園的發展,這一發現應能得到印證。 

 

Beyond profits, gender-diverse boards can also improve corporate governance. Forthcoming IMF staff research also finds that a greater share of women on bank and banking supervision boards could be associated with greater bank stability. In particular, banks with a higher share of women are associated with higher capital buffers and lower non-performing loan (NPL) ratios. 

 

性別多樣化的董事會不僅能提高利潤,而且能夠改善企業治理。即將發表的基金組織工作人員研究也發現,銀行董事會和銀行監管委員會中的女性董事占比提高會隨之提高銀行的穩健性。特別是,那些有較大女性占比的銀行通常擁有更多的資本緩沖和較低的不良貸款率。 

 

So how can we get more women onto corporate boards in a country like Korea – where just 14 of the 100 largest listed companies have a female director? 

 

在韓國100家最大的上市公司中,僅有14家公司有女性董事。那么,在這樣一個國家中,我們怎樣才能讓更多女性進入公司董事會? 

 

The family-friendly working practices that I mentioned earlier are absolute pre-requisites, but what else is needed? I do not claim to have all the answers – but let me share some thoughts based on three personal experiences. 

 

我前面提到的支持家庭的工作做法絕對是一個先決條件,但除此之外,還需要做些什么?我自己并不知道所有答案,但想根據三個親身經歷分享一些看法。

 

I. Unconscious Bias 

一、無意識的偏見 

 

My first story. When I started working at Baker McKenzie in the 1980 s– despite my technical abilities and professional knowledge – there were occasions when external clients assumed I was only there to bring them coffee. 

 

我的第一個經歷是,當我在80年代剛到Baker McKenzie律師事務所工作的時候,盡管我有著很強的技術能力和專業知識,可有時仍有一些外來客戶以為我在那兒的唯一工作是給他們端咖啡。 

 

Today, sexism is more subtle – but, conscious or not, bias remains. When we talk of unconscious bias, we include the overall corporate culture, but also preconceptions about what breeds success. 

 

如今,性別歧視更加微妙,但無論是否有意識,偏見依然存在。我們所謂的無意識偏見,既包括總體的企業文化,也包括對成功來源的先入之見。 

 

It is important to bring unconscious biases out into the open, so they can be recognized, discussed, and addressed. 

 

必須使無意識的偏見暴露出來,以便可以識別這些偏見,對其進行討論并加以解決。

 

Options like “fast-tracking” promising women up the career ladder – so they can develop the right experience, skills and networks for senior management. Withholding names from selection committees can also pay dividends – “blind hiring” practices helped the Australian Bureau of Statistics increase the share of female senior executives from 21 to 43 percent. 

 

像“快速提拔”有發展前途的女性,從而使其能夠積累適當的經驗、技能和人脈來獲得高級管理職位。不讓選舉委員會知曉候選人的姓名,這也是一個好辦法。“盲聘”做法幫助澳大利亞統計局把女性高級管理人員所占的比例從21%提高到43%。 

 

Addressing bias is a critical step. Another tool, quotas, can also help – as my second story illustrates. 

 

消除偏見是關鍵的一步。另一個工具是性別配額,我的第二個經歷顯示,這個辦法也會有所幫助。 

 

II. Quotas 

二、性別配額 

 

I used to think that quotas were unnecessary. Then I realized that, without them, it would take 5 generations until 30 percent of partners at my law firm were women. So I was converted to quotas, at least as a short-term solution. 

 

我曾以為性別配額并不必要,但后來意識到,如果不這么做,在我工作的律師事務所需要五代人的時間,才能使女性合伙人的比例達到30%。因此我轉為支持性別配額,至少視其為短期的解決辦法。 

 

As the debate around corporate quotas continues in Korea, there is much international experience to draw from. In recent years, we have seen several countries adopt corporate quotas. India did so in 2010, and the share of women on boards rose from 5 to 13 percent. In Malaysia, quotas helped double the proportion of female board members at the largest companies.  

 

韓國仍在就企業中的性別配額問題進行討論,而在這方面有很多國際經驗可供借鑒。 近年來,我們看到一些國家采用了企業性別配額的做法。印度在2010年采用了這一做法,使女性在董事會中的比重從5%增加到13%。在馬來西亞,性別配額讓最大企業的女性董事所占比例翻了一番。 

 

Mandatory legal quotas have also been introduced in parts of Europe. In Norway, over five years they supported a fourfold increase in the proportion of women on boards. 

 

歐洲某些國家也在法律上強制規定了性別配額。在挪威,性別配額在五年時間中使女性董事所占比例增加了三倍。 

 

We must also acknowledge that international experience with mandated corporate quotas has not been universally successful. Some quotas have been poorly implemented, lacked incentives, or had insufficient buy-in. Quotas cannot be viewed in isolation, but only as part of a wider package of measures. 

 

我們也必須認識到,關于強制性企業性別配額的國際經驗并非總能成功。一些性別配額執行不當,缺乏激勵機制,或是并未得到充分的認可。不能孤立地使用性別配額,而是應將其作為一套更廣泛措施的一部分。 

 

III. Mentoring 

三、導師制 

 

My final story is about mentorship. I was fortunate enough to have a role model, a mentor from whom I learned. She taught me how to “dress,” “address,” and “redress”: 

 

我的最后一個經歷是關于導師制。我很慶幸我有一個榜樣,一個可效仿的導師。她教我如何“展現自我”(dress)、“清晰表述”(address)、“堅守應對”(redress): 

 

Dressing is presenting yourself in a way that made others take you seriously; 

 

•“展現自我”是以贏得他人重視的方式展現自我; 

 

Addressing is making yourself understood; and, 

 

•“清晰表述”是是清晰表達自己的觀點; 

 

Redressing is resolving conflicts and sticking up for your convictions. 

 

• “堅守應對”是解決沖突并堅持自己的信念。 

 

For me, these lessons have stood the test of time. 

 

對我而言,這些教誨經受住了時間的考驗。 

 

Male champions of women’s empowerment can also play a crucial role. They can instill in their colleagues their understanding that gender diversity is critical for organizations to thrive – for the benefit of men and women alike. 

 

擁護賦予女性權能的男性支持者們也可以發揮關鍵作用。這些男性可以向同事們傳播自己的這一認識:性別多樣化對于一個組織的成功至關重要,對男女雙方都有利。 

 

Aside from my convictions, I can assure you that gender equality is taken very seriously at the IMF. 

 

性別平等不僅是我本人的信念,我也確定地告訴你們,性別平等在基金組織同樣受到很大重視。 

 

The IMF is committed to promoting gender equality because – as I said – empowering women is critical for economic growth and prosperity. 

 

基金組織堅定致力于促進性別平等,這是因為,正如我所說,賦予女性權能對于經濟的增長與繁榮都至關重要。 

 

So we are developing a body of research on the economics of gender – analyzing the macroeconomic effects, but also identifying the main obstacles and polices. 

 

因此,我們正在設立一個研究性別經濟學的部門,這個部門不僅將分析宏觀經濟的影響,還將找出主要的阻礙因素和應對政策。 

 

We are taking gender considerations into account in our country programs and economic health-checks. 

 

我們也將性別問題納入我們的國家規劃和經濟健康檢查工作中。 

 

Many of our programs include gender-related provisions – most recently in Egypt, Jordan, and Niger. 

 

我們在很多規劃中都包括了與性別有關的條款,在最近埃及、約旦和尼日爾的規劃中都是如此。 

 

As part of our economic health-checks, we have conducted 27 country and regional pilots that looked closely at this topic. 

 

作為經濟健康狀況檢查的一部分,我們已開展了27個國家和地區的試點項目,對這一問題進行了仔細探討。 

 

For several years, we have also discussed gender-related issues with the Korean authorities. We remain committed to this dialogue as you identify and implement further measures to promote gender equity. 

 

若干年來,我們也與韓國當局討論了性別平等的有關問題。隨著貴國確定并推出進一步措施來促進性別平等,基金組織仍堅定致力于就此開展對話。 

 

In sum, the IMF will continue to bring women’s empowerment into the economic mainstream, because unleashing the potential of women is a global priority. This is especially the case in Korea. The time for action is now. 

 

總而言之,基金組織將繼續把賦予女性權能納入主要的經濟工作之中,因為發揮女性的潛力是全球的當務之急,這在韓國尤其如此,F在正是采取行動的時候。 

 

In the words of Ko Un, in his poem Arrows: “Let’s all soar together, body and soul!” 

 

用韓國詩人高銀在《箭矢》一詩中的話說:“讓我們一起高飛,身體和靈魂!” 

 

I have shared some of my own experiences, but I do not claim to have all the answers. I look forward to hearing your views. 

 

我分享了自己的一些經歷,但并不知道所有答案。我期待傾聽大家的看法。 

 

Thank you – Gamsahamnida.

 

謝謝大家,Gamsahamnida。

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